Geotechnical monitoring is important because soil and rock constitute the largest construction material by volume used in a built environment and understanding their behavior as engineering materials is critical to the design of building foundation systems, earth and rock fill dams, tunnels and other underground structures, and all other facilities constructed of or in contact with soil or rock.
Geophysics is the subsurface site characterization of the geology, geological structure, groundwater, contamination, and human artifacts beneath the Earth's surface, based on the lateral and vertical mapping of physical property variations that are remotely sensed using non-invasive technologies. While Oceanography is the branch that studies the ocean, and its marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics, ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics
While a non-destructive solution to map the subsurface of the earth is needed, or a method to locate the depth and position of rebar, post-tension cable and conduits before drilling, cutting or coring in a concrete structure inspection, or a system that provides users with an effective tool for quickly determining pavement layer thickness and performing base and sub-base evaluations in road and bridge inspection tasks, Geophysical services are the most cost effective and practical methods to be used.
Geophysical surveys are cost-effective, efficient, and non-destructive. So, it is ideal for use in populated areas, such as cities, where many of today's environmental and engineering issues arise. It also means that an archaeological site can be examined without destroying it in the process; it also provides a means of evaluating large areas of the subsurface rapidly. The majority of geophysical surveying techniques have been in existence for more than a half-century and are mature, yet still relatively undiscovered and underutilized by decision- makers who face complex environmental and engineering problems.
Urban (utility mapping, underground storage tank location)
Civil Engineering / Non-Destructive Testing (NDT)
Observational and theoretical studies of electric and magnetic fields in the oceans and on the land
Broad observational seismology, including ocean bottom and multichannel seismology
Geophysical instrumentation for oceanic and continental geophysical measurements